The doping in recent years not only affects the competitive sports and is also spreading at an amateur level in gyms, for example.
This phenomenon is very ancient, the term doping has several origins: from the English “dope”, the South Africans drank the aforementioned alcoholic mix in the 18th century to keep themselves active, from the American “doops” who indicated the drink given to the victims of the robbers to sedate them. Today the term “doping” means the use of chemical preparations which alter the psychophysical and biological conditions of the organism and, consequently, the athletic performance of the athlete.
In Italy and in other countries those who use doping substances, and anyone involved in doping (providing other doping substances to the doctor …) commit a real criminal offense.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has compiled a list of prohibited substances and methods , which are continuously updated. The athletes selected “in” or “out of competition” are subjected (even with surprise checks) to doping tests in which the urine is analyzed and in some cases cross-checks are carried out with those of the blood. We always remember that doping substances are harmful to health.
METHODOLOGIES AND PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES IN SPORT
- Blood doping = increase of red blood cells in the blood to improve the aerobic capacity and resistance of the athlete
- Genetic doping = modulation of genetic expression to improve athletic performance
- Narcotics and analgesics (morphine, methadone …): they are used to relieve pain that could negatively affect sports performance after an accident or a trauma. These substances are certainly dangerous, because they are addictive.
- Beta blockers
- Stimulants (amphetamine, ephedrine, caffeine, cocaine): they act on fatigue and on the sensation of pain, thus allowing the sportsman to go well beyond his limits. In case of abuse they can lead to heart failure and addiction.
- Anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolone): widespread during the 1980s, when body building was in fashion. In fact, they are used to increase muscle mass and, in the long run , cause liver tumors, damage to the cardiovascular system , impotence and sterility.
- Diuretics and peptide hormones: the former allow athletes to eliminate fluids by decreasing weight, the latter stimulate the production of substances for tissue oxygenation and control of emotions and stress. The former can cause damage to the circulation and the kidneys, the latter can cause damage to the whole organism as they block the production of natural substances.
FIGHT AGAINST DOPING
The IOC, as written in the official website of the Olympics, has as its priority the fight against doping . It established a zero tolerance policy by establishing the World Anti-Doping Agency in 1999 in Lausanne, Switzerland (WADA, World Anti-Doping Agency). WADA is an organization that controls and regulates the global fight against doping through the World Anti-Doping Code and is responsible for scientific research, the development of anti-doping methods and the monitoring of the application and compliance with the Code. The latter is a document that aims to bring the anti – dopingregulations of all nations into compliance with all substances, prohibited methods and is updated every year.